The second is to facilitate the education of individuals about drug risks and harms buy forxiga 10mg overnight delivery, so enabling them to make informed and responsible decisions about their health and wellbeing forxiga 10mg free shipping. Getting to grips with these questions requires that two important 70 4 5 6 Making a regulated system happen Regulated drug markets in practice Appendices distinctions are made order forxiga american express. First of all, primary health harms to individual users should be distinguished from the secondary social harms to third parties that follow from that use. Second, harms related to drug use per se (both primary and secondary) should be distinguished from harms created or exacerbated by policy environments. The prevailing analysis that informs most current policy makes the frst distinction (between health and social harms) reasonably well, but largely fails to make the second distinction (between drug harms and policy harms). It confuses and confates the two, often misattributing prohibition or illicit market harms to drugs, or by default drug users, and feeding the self-justifying 30 feedback loop that has helped immunise prohibition from scrutiny. Some efforts to untangle drug use harms from drug policy harms have been made, although this is an area that warrants more detailed consid- eration and analysis. Correspondingly, the Transform report then makes a distinc- tion between the aims of the drug policy reform movement—to reduce or eliminate the harms specifcally created or exacerbated by prohibi- tion and illicit markets—and the more conventional aims of an effective drug policy—to reduce or eliminate the range of direct and indirect harms associated with drug use and misuse. A more comprehensive ‘taxonomy of drug-related harms’ has been 32 constructed by MacCoun and Reuter who break down forty six iden- tifed drug-related harms into four general categories: ‘health’, ‘social and economic functioning’, ‘safety and public order’, and ‘criminal justice’. Whilst these systems have some functionality, they are frequently both inconsistent and oversimplifed. On a practical level, they are built on generalisations, they (confusingly) fail to include legal drugs, and both confate and fail to fully acknowledge multiple harms; this has substantially reduced their utility, both as policy making tools, and as aids to individual users seeking to make informed decisions about personal drug use. Before discussing these issues and their policy implications in more detail it is worth trying to deconstruct the main vectors of harm associ- ated with drug use specifcally (as distinct from harms related to drug policy) that policy makers must consider. The level of risk associated with a given drug’s toxicity and propensity to cause dependence is then moderated by a series of behavioural variables, and by the predispositions of the individual user. A drug’s acute toxicity relates to the size of the margin between an active threshold, the dose at which the drugs effect (or desired effect) is achieved by the user, and the dose at which a specifed toxic reaction, or overdose, occurs. Such a toxic reaction could involve merely unpleasant temporary side effects, such as vomiting, dizziness, fainting, distress, etc. The comparable terminology for medical drugs is the ‘therapeutic index’, which is the ratio of the therapeutic dose to the toxic dose. With non-med- ical drugs acute toxicity of a given drug is often measured by assessing the ratio of lethal dose to the usual or active dose. The smaller this gap between active and toxic dosage, the more toxic a drug is deemed to be. Other methods for measuring toxicity, such as sub-lethal toxic effects, also exist; all are clear and relatively simple. When ranking drugs, however, issues of acute drug toxicity are compli- cated by a number of behavioural variables, most obviously including mode of drug administration, and poly-drug use. It is especially hard to establish individual effect causality in the context of a range of lifestyle variables, and use of multiple drugs. Even when credible esti- mates or measurements can be made of long term effects, the problem arises that rankings of drugs by acute and chronic toxic effects do not necessarily match up. For example, it is diffcult to compare tobacco smoking, which involves low acute risk but high chronic risk, with opiate use, which has high acute risk but lower chronic risks. Drug addiction, or drug dependence as it is generally now described, is a diffcult concept to precisely defne, or to achieve consensus on. However, more agreement does exist on the physiological components of drug dependence, described in terms of brain chemistry (neurotransmitters, receptors, etc. These physiolog- ical components have been well described in the medical literature of the last century (for established drugs at least, if not perhaps so well for more recently emerging ones), and are now well understood. An additional physiological aspect of drug action that impacts on dependence is its half life, which measures how long the drug effect lasts. The qualita- tive nature of the initial onset of the intoxication experience, or ‘rush’, and the post-rush experience—the subjective pleasure associated with using the drug—are also important variables. They are, however, harder to objectively quantify, and also dependent to a signifcant extent on drug preparation, dosage and mode of administration. However, while the physiological elements of drug action as it relates to dependence can be assessed and potentially ranked, dependency issues are dramatically complicated by the individual user, and the range of psycho-social factors that interface with physiological processes. This interaction produces dependency-related behaviours, which may require the attention of policy makers and service providers. The psycho-social infuences upon, or components of dependency relating to, a given drug are far harder to quantify and rank, and far more contentious in the literature. For example, psychological dependence— ‘addiction’—is now also associated with sex, shopping, gambling, the 34 internet and so on. These psycho-social components are, however, arguably no less important in terms of determining behaviours. Some drugs that have relatively moderate or low physiological dependency effects are none the less frequently associated with powerful psychological depen- dency, cocaine being an obvious example. Whether physiological and psychological dependence should be pooled together in rank- ings remains a moot point—as does the question of whether ‘addiction’ remains a useful term, as opposed to dysfunctional, problematic or dependent use. Alexander, ‘The Globalisation of Addiction: A Study in Poverty of the Spirit’, Oxford University Press, 2008. In particular, risk assessment is made more diffcult by the wide variation in physiological and psychological makeup of individual drug users. Key variables include general phys- ical and mental health, and age (young and old are more vulnerable). Specifc physical and mental health conditions can have a major impact on individual risk, and pharmacogenetic factors can also cause vulner- abilities to certain drug harms in certain individuals. This is largely unaccounted for by broadly generalised drug harm categories and rankings. Clearly, a small amount of a Class A or Schedule 1 drug will be less risky than a large dose of a drug from a lower schedule. However, in a regu- lated market, with standardised products and packaging information, the specifc risks of unknown potency (and in particular, of unexpectedly high potency) will largely be removed. The issue of relative potency- related risk has probably been overstated as users, if possessed of the requisite dosage information, will rationally dose control to regulate their own risk exposure—or auto-titrate, to achieve the level of intoxica- tion they are seeking. The nature of the drug preparation, how the drug is administered, and the physical and social/peer environment in which consumption takes place are also crucially important linked variables in determining risk. This is usefully illustrated with the example of coca based drugs—from 76 4 5 6 Making a regulated system happen Regulated drug markets in practice Appendices chewed coca leaf, through coca drinks, snorted cocaine powder, to smoked crack cocaine (see: page 120). It is worth noting that the risk of lung damage can be signifcantly reduced if the drug can be inhaled in a vaporised form,36 rather than as smoke from a burning process. By contrast to the seconds associated with injection, this is lower intensity and gives some degree of control over dosage.
If a separate fridge is not used for the storage of medicines generic forxiga 10 mg on line, medicines should be kept in a container separate from food generic forxiga 10mg mastercard. The reliability of the fridge should be monitored through daily temperature checks buy cheap forxiga online. In some services, appropriately trained staff other than nurses may administer medicines, for example, in some disability services. It is also important to consult with families and carers regarding the administration of medicines, where it is appropriate to do so. Only prescribed medicines which are in date and are properly stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions should be administered to residents. Residents are advised, as appropriate, about the indication for prescribed medicines and are given access, to the patient information leaflet provided with medicines, accessible health information or pharmacist counseling service. When appropriate, residents should be informed of the possible side effects of prescribed medicines. They should also be afforded the opportunity to consult with the prescriber, pharmacist or other appropriate independent healthcare professional about medicines prescribed as appropriate. Some residents may self-administer medicines, where the risks have been assessed and their competence to self-administer has been confirmed by the multidisciplinary team which includes the pharmacist. Any change to the initial risk assessment is recorded in the care plan and arrangements for self-administering medicines must be kept under review. Medicines administration compliance aids are generally used for suitable oral solid dosage medicines. Medicines administration compliance aids are packed and labelled by a pharmacist and the medicines are taken by, or administered to, the resident directly from the aid. If the prescriber alters any medicine order, the entire medicines administration compliance aid should be returned to the supplying pharmacist for repackaging. All medicines in a medicines administration compliance aid should be identifiable using a tablet identification system in the residential service. Residential services should have policies and procedures for the alteration of oral dose formulations (for example, crushing tablets or opening capsules) to make it easier to administer medicines to residents with swallowing difficulties or enteral feeding tubes. If it is deemed necessary to alter the form of medicines for safe administration to the resident, staff should consult with the prescriber and the pharmacist to discuss alternative preparations or forms of administration for the resident. In some cases, the 20 Medicines Management Guidance Health Information and Quality Authority practice of altering the form of medicines may result in reduced effectiveness, a greater risk of toxicity, or unacceptable presentation to residents in terms of taste or texture. Where medicines are administered in a form change (for example, crushed form, opening capsules, dispersing in water and so on), this may be outside the instructions as provided for in the Summary of Product Characteristics and may be unauthorised. Only medical and dental practitioners can authorise the administration of unauthorised medicines and this should be indicated on the prescription sheet for each individual medicine with the consent of the resident, or his or her representative where appropriate. Records must be kept to account for all medicines received, administered to residents, given to residents on leaving the residential service and returned to the pharmacy. Although mistakes may or may not be more common with these drugs, the consequences of an error are more devastating to residents. This may include such strategies as: standardising the ordering, storage, preparation, and administration of these products improving access to information about these drugs limiting access to high-alert medicines using auxiliary labels and automated alerts employing measures such as independent double checks when necessary. Any medicine that is being given covertly must be checked to ensure it is safe when administered in this fashion and that the chemical nature of the medicine is not changed. A full written assessment of the resident is performed prior to the administration of medicines covertly. The assessment identifies the medicines being administered, the indications for these medicines, alternative measures that have been taken and the rationale for the use of covert administration. All decisions to administer medicines covertly must be made following a multidisciplinary agreement that this practice is in the resident’s best interests. This agreement must be documented and reviewed in line with the relevant legislation or more often if circumstances change. If a medicine is to 22 Medicines Management Guidance Health Information and Quality Authority be administered covertly, this should be stated on the prescription sheet. Where medicines are covertly administered it is important to observe for and document side effects. Residents may be given the opportunity to self-administer their medicines in line with their needs and wishes, following an assessment. Where self-administration of medicines is carried out, an individual risk assessment should be carried out to consider: the resident’s choice the amount of support a resident needs to self administer medicines the resident’s ability to understand the process the resident’s knowledge of their medicines and treatment plan the resident’s literacy and ability to read labels the resident’s dexterity and ability to open bottles and containers if the resident can take the correct dose of their own medicines at the right time in the right way where the resident’s medicines will be stored the responsibilities of residential care staff. The level of support and resulting responsibility of the staff should be written in the care plan for each resident. This should also include how to monitor whether the resident is still able to self-administer medicines and should detail the ongoing supervision to ensure adherence with the treatment plan. Monitoring and reviewing how the resident manages to take their 23 Medicines Management Guidance Health Information and Quality Authority medicines forms part of the person’s care. In residential centres where children self administer medicines, a risk assessment should be carried out and recorded in the care plan. It should determine: that the resident is able to look after and self administer their own medicines whether any monitoring is needed to assess the ability to self-administer or willingness to take the medicines as prescribed that medicine has been taken as prescribed (either by seeing this directly or by asking the resident) who has recorded that the medicine has been taken. Residential services should ensure that their process for self‑administration of Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs includes additional specific information about: obtaining or ordering Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs storing Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs recording supply of Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs to residents disposal of unused or expired Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs. Residents should be offered the medicines at the times they are experiencing the symptoms either by telling a member of staff or by staff identifying the resident’s need as outlined in the care plan. Staff who may need to administer such medicine require additional training so that they can administer it safely and confidently in an emergency. If a second dose of medicine is prescribed, then the prescription must state the period of time after administration of the first dose in which the second dose can be administered. Medicines used for the management of seizures should be reviewed and evaluated on a regular basis. The centre’s medicines management policy should include guidance to staff on how to manage refusal of medicines. This guidance should include the actions to be taken if medicines are refused, who to contact and the documentation to be completed. If a resident agrees to take a medicine later than the prescribed time, this must be documented clearly in the medicines administration record. If a medicine is given at a later time than prescribed, the prescriber should be contacted to ensure that there are no contra-indications. If there is a pattern where a resident often refuses medicine, a plan must be put in place with involvement of the staff, multidisciplinary team, the resident and their representatives, if appropriate. This plan must be reviewed on a regular basis, in line with the relevant legislation or more often if circumstances change. There are legal requirements for the storage, administration, records and disposal of Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs. All medicines, including Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drugs (except those for self administration) are administered by a registered nurse or medical practitioner in older persons’ residential services. In social care settings such as residential services for people with disabilities, other personnel may be trained to administer medicines. In order to administer a Schedule 2 and 3 controlled drug, all the steps involved in giving any other medicine should be followed.
Multiple recurrences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with the human immunodeficiency virus cheap forxiga 10mg visa. Vaginal 5-fluorouracil for high-grade cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus infection: a randomized trial buy forxiga 10mg overnight delivery. Rarity of cesarean delivery in cases of juvenile-onset respiratory papillomatosis order forxiga 10mg otc. Smoking, diet, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use as risk factors for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia in relation to human papillomavirus infection. Topical Imiquimod 5% cream therapy for external anogenital warts in pregnant women: report of four cases and review of the literature. Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile- onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Cervical human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid persists throughout pregnancy and decreases in the postpartum period. Exposure of an infant to cervical human papillomavirus infection of the mother is common. Low risk of perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus: results from a prospective cohort study. Perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus in infants: relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery. Perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus from gravidas with latent infections. Pregnancy and infant outcomes in the clinical trials of a human papillomavirus type 6/11/16/18 vaccine: a combined analysis of five randomized controlled trials. Assessment of the patient’s liver fibrosis stage is important to or serum biomarkers. Such counseling should emphasize sexual transmission as well as the risks associated with sharing needles and syringes, tattooing, or body-piercing. However, whether a schedule of 4 double-dose vaccines is superior to 4 single-dose or 3 double-dose vaccines is still unclear. In drug-induced liver injury, determining the offending medication also can be challenging. Other causes of abnormal liver tests should be sought, including use of drugs or alcohol, other viral hepatitis infections (hepatitis A, C, D, and E), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Improvement of response with the addition of entecavir has been reported, but whether such “intensification therapy” is required is unclear. Patients with varices require non-selective beta blockers, such as nadolol or propranolol, that are the mainstay of both primary and secondary prevention of variceal hemorrhage. Esophageal variceal banding is another preventive option, particularly for those who cannot tolerate beta blockers. Hepatic encephalopathy is treated with a 40-g protein diet and the use of non-absorbable disaccharides such as lactulose and/or non-absorbable antibiotics such as rifaximin. As of January 2017, 4763 cases of pregnancy outcomes after first-trimester exposures to lamivudine have been reported to the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, with no indication of an increased risk of birth defects after exposure (http://www. These drugs could be included in a regimen during pregnancy if other options are inappropriate. Entecavir was associated with skeletal anomalies in rats and rabbits, but only at high, maternally-toxic doses (package insert). Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Global perspective on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B: role of hepatitis B virus genotypes A to J. Screening for hepatitis B virus infection in nonpregnant adolescents and adults: U. Use of Current and New Endpoints in the Evaluation of Experimental Hepatitis B Therapeutics. Hepatitis B reactivation in occult viral carriers undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A prospective study. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in Caucasian patients: mortality after 25 years. Long-term follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with interferon alfa. Incident hepatitis C virus infection in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort analysis, 1984-2011. Decreased immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in chronic hepatitis C. Impaired dendritic cell maturation in patients with chronic, but not resolved, hepatitis C virus infection. Booster immunization of low- and non-responders after a standard three dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule--results of a post-marketing surveillance. Randomized, comparative trial of 20 micrograms vs 40 micrograms Engerix B vaccine in hepatitis B vaccine non-responders. Revaccination of healthy nonresponders with hepatitis B vaccine and prediction of seroprotection response. Comparative evaluation of the immunogenicity of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine by a prospective and retrospective trial. A randomized clinical trial of immunization with combined hepatitis A and B versus hepatitis B alone for hepatitis B seroprotection in hemodialysis patients. Hepatitis A and B immunizations of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Tenofovir treatment in patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B mutants strongly affects viral replication. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy for chronic hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected individuals for whom interferon-alpha and lamivudine therapy have failed. Chronic active hepatitis B exacerbations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients following development of resistance to or withdrawal of lamivudine. Reactivation of hepatitis B in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection treated with combination antiretroviral therapy. Hepatitis B exacerbation with a precore mutant virus following withdrawal of lamivudine in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.
Where existing storage volumes of 15% hypochlorite are greater than 28 days purchase genuine forxiga line, consideration should be given to lowering the concentration of product delivered to 10% or lower in order to extend the product shelf life cheap forxiga 10mg free shipping, reduce the rate of degradation and the consequent formation of chlorates purchase forxiga with amex. Dosage rates must be adjusted by operator in accordance with an operating procedure to compensate for progressive loss in chlorine content due to the storage age of chemical. Hypochlorite storage and dosing installations The design of storage installations should pay particular attention to spill containment including containment for 110% contents of the largest tank, no uncontrolled floor drains, an overflow from chemical storage tanks that discharges to the containment area and separate containment areas for incompatible chemicals should be provided. Where fiberglass is used for reinforcement in tank walls, the fibres must be protected from the sodium hypochlorite with a sufficient depth of coating. Vent(s) from bulk tanks should be sized at 100-150% of fill pipe diameter to prevent excess pressures or vacuum during filling and should be terminated at a suitable external location, remote from air intakes, doors, windows, and parked vehicles, in a downward aspect with a fine corrosion resistant mesh to prevent contamination. Fill points should be located directly over containment area and provision should be also made for a ball shut off valve to prevent backflow of chemical when hose is disconnected, and to guard against any unauthorized filling without the presence of appropriate site personnel. A liquid sensor that activates audible and visual alarms, at a high level set point, should be provided on bulk storage tanks. The alarms must be mounted at locations that will alert both the treatment system operator and tank truck delivery driver to prevent overfilling of bulk tank(s). Emergency overflows from tanks should discharge to the containment area at a level of typically 300mm from floor level. To cater for accidental splashes of hypochlorite chemicals on the skin or in the eyes, emergency eye washes and showers should be provided between the location of the hazard and the nearest means of egress. These drench showers and eyewashes should be located throughout the facility following on-site risk assessment of accidental exposure. Flush eyes and skin for at least 15 minutes and seek medical treatment after exposures. Where drums are used, provisions should be made for disposing of drums in accordance with a site- specific procedure which will prohibit rinsing out of drums, prevent their exposed to internal contamination and minimize personal and environmental exposure to chemicals. As with all hazardous chemicals, feed lines should be ideally routed overground along cable trays through readily accessible floor ducting. Underground buried ducting should be avoided unless secondary contained within a sealed sleeve. Feed lines should be color-coded yellow, labelled with chemical name, and show arrows to indicate direction of flow. Control of gasfication Operators should be aware, when taking delivery of Sodium Hypochlorite that the solution is active particularly at higher concentration and will release a large proportion of gas in solution and during subsequent degradation during subsequent storage. The release of gas from the solution temporarily affects the dosing system by creating a gas lock in the dosing system resulting in a loss of prime and a lower applied chlorine dose for that period. After receiving a delivery of sodium hypochlorite, it should be allowed to stand for a few hours or over night, before utilizing the chemical to liberate much of the gas contained within the liquid. The concentration of bulk sodium hypochlorite deliveries should be monitored relative to specification particularly following a new delivery but also on an ongoing basis, as the stocks of hypochlorite ages, so that chlorine dosing can be adjusted accordingly. The most common dosing systems use diaphragm metering pumps with a pulsation damper, a pressure relief valve, a calibration cylinder and a loading valve. Some dosing pump suppliers offer auto-degas valves systems as part the dosing system design. Gas is typically removed from the suction line through a vent valve and directed back to the storage tank with a small amount of liquid. Bulk hypochlorite dosing systems should be installed with a flooded suction to aid in the prevention of gasification. Pump suction lines should be always below the minimum tank liquid level and be installed downwards from the tank to the pump. Delivery lines should slope upward from the metering pump without loops or pipe configurations which will trap sodium hypochlorite between two closed valves and be fitted with anti-siphon valves. Relative to commercial sodium hypochlorite (5-15%) it is less hazardous and also a more stable chemical compound. Most proprietary systems also possess automatic safeguards which shut down the system if a fault is detected. Consequently a parallel room ventilation system will assure the hydrogen gas is quickly dispersed. As hydrogen will rise to the ceiling, the room ventilation system should be designed to provide for exhaust air to exit near the ceiling. The vent should exceed the size of the tank’s largest inlet or outlet nozzle by two inches. The vents should have a vinyl insect screen attached to the end to keep debris or insects out of the tank. Every atmospheric pressure rated tank must be protected at all times by properly sized vent pipes in order to prevent build-up of pressure or vacuum conditions. Operators should never remove an access hatch or work on the storage tank until the requirements of a site specific operating procedure has been complied with. Calcium Hypochlorite Calcium hypochlorite is another chlorinating chemical used infrequently in an Irish context. It is used primarily in smaller water supply disinfection applications and in swimming pools. It is a white, dry solid containing approximately 65% chlorine, and is commercially available in granular and tablet form. Calcium hypochlorite is particularly reactive in the solid form with associated fire or explosive hazard if handled improperly. All forms of calcium hypochlorite should be properly stored in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions in a cool, dark, dry place in closed corrosion resistant containers. Calcium hypochlorite should be stored away from heat and organic materials that can be readily oxidized. Improperly stored calcium hypochlorite has caused spontaneous combustion fires in the past Granular calcium hypochlorite, if stored out of closed containers can lose about 18% of its initial available chlorine in 40 days. Consequently stocks should be dated and controlled and used in rotation so as to minimise deterioration in storage. Solutions should be prepared on a batch basis for use following mixing and special provision for the separation of diluted calcium hypochlorite from inert materials as follows: from granular product, by the provision of a separate mixing tank upstream of the dosing tank and mechanically mixing. Following proper mixing the inert insoluble material is allowed to settle prior to decantation of the dissolved liquid only to the dosing tank. Hygiene and good housekeeping at treatment/disinfection installations Due to the importance of water as a food product, the importance of good hygiene practices by operators and the elimination of the potential public health hazard posed by uncontrolled ingress by 176 Environmental Protection Agency Water Treatment Manual: Disinfection Appendix 2. Where appropriate, this training should include the actions required if one of these personnel has an illness (for example gastroenteritis or Hepatitis A) that could pose a risk of contamination of the drinking water supply or spread of the illness to other personnel. Hygienic practices are particularly important for multifunctional personnel who may work on both water supply and sewage. This scheme consists of completing a health questionnaire, receiving comprehensive water hygiene training and successfully passing a multi- choice test paper.
Elimination Daratumumab clearance decreased with increasing dose and with multiple dosing purchase 10 mg forxiga with amex. Increasing body weight increased the central volume of distribution and clearance of daratumumab forxiga 10 mg with amex, supporting the body weight-based dosing regimen best 10mg forxiga. Bortezomib and dexamethasone a Based on Intent-to-treat population b p-value from Cochran Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Squared test. The baseline demographic and disease characteristics were similar With a median follow-up of 7. Pomalidomide (4 mg once daily At baseline, 32% of patients were refractory to the last line of treatment and orally on Days 1-21 of repeated 28-day [4-week] cycles) was given with the proportions of patients refractory to any specifc prior therapy were in low dose oral or intravenous dexamethasone 40 mg/ week (reduced dose general well balanced between the treatment groups. All patients received prior lenalidomide treatment, with 98% of patients previously treated with the combination of bortezomib and lenalidomide. Eighty nine percent (89%) of patients were refractory to lenalidomide and 71% refractory to bortezomib; 64% of patients were refractory to bortezomib and lenalidomide. Treatment headache, shortness of breath or diffculty breathing [see Warnings and continued until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Patients had received a median of 5 prior • Advise patients that if they have a fever, they should contact their lines of therapy. Eighty percent of patients had received prior autologous healthcare professional [see Warnings and Precautions (5. The median patient age was 64 years (range: 44 to 76 years), 64% were male and 76% were Caucasian. Prior therapies included bortezomib (100%), lenalidomide (95%), pomalidomide (36%) and carflzomib (19%). Talk to your healthcare provider about birth control methods that you can use during this time. Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: • shortness of breath or trouble breathing • headache • dizziness or lightheadedness (hypotension) • itching • cough • nausea • wheezing • vomiting • throat tightness • chills • runny or stuffy nose • fever • Changes in blood tests. Tell your healthcare provider if you develop fever or have signs of bruising or bleeding. Active ingredient: daratumumab Inactive ingredients: glacial acetic acid, mannitol, polysorbate 20, sodium acetate trihydrate, sodium chloride, and water for injection Manufactured by: Janssen Biotech, Inc. Test methods 1) Design 2) Number of subjects 3) Selection of subjects 4) Drug administration a. Testing conditions 1) Products containing acidic drugs 2) Products containing neutral or basic drugs, and coated products 3) Products containing poorly soluble drugs 4) Enteric-coated products 4. Results 1) Summary 2) Dissolution tests 3) Bioequivalence studies 4) Pharmacodynamic studies 5) Clinical studies 2 B. Adjusting dissolution curves with lag times 3 Table List of abbreviations of parameters Fig. Judgement of dissolution equivalence 4 Section 1: Introduction This guideline describes the principles of procedures of bioequivalence studies of generic products. The objective of the study is to assure therapeutic equivalence of generic products to innovator products. In the bioequivalence study, bioavailability should be compared for innovator and generic products. If this is not feasible, pharmacological effects supporting therapeutic efficacy or therapeutic effectiveness in major indications should be compared (These comparative tests are hereafter called pharmacodynamic studies and clinical studies, respectively). For oral products, dissolution tests should be performed, since they provide important information concerning bioequivalence. Section 2: Terminology Terms used in the guideline are defined as follows: Bioavailability: The rate and extent of absorption of active ingredients or active metabolites from a product into the systemic circulation. Therapeutically equivalent products: Drug products having the equivalent therapeutic efficacies. Innovator products: A drug products that have been approved as a new drug, or a drug that corresponds to one. Generic products: Products of which active ingredients, strengths, dosage forms, and dosage regimens are the same as those of innovator products. When the average dissolutions of the three lots reach 85% within 15 min, any lots can be used as the reference product. When the average dissolution of any of the lots 5 does not reach 85%, the test solution providing the fastest dissolution should be used. If the drug is administered as a liquid where the active ingredient dissolves, an appropriate lot can be used as a reference product without performing dissolution tests. It is recommended to use a lot manufactured at the same lot size as the full-scale production. However, a lot manufactured at a scale of not less than 1/10 of a full-scale production also can be used. If the product is a homogeneous liquid where the active ingredient dissolves, a lot of which manufacturing scale is less than the 1/10 can be used. Manufacturing method of the test product and commercial products should be similar and quality and bioavailability of both products should be equivalent. A reference product whose content or potency is as close as possible to the labelled claim should be used. Furthermore, it is preferable that the difference between the content or potency of the test product and that of the reference product be within 5% of the labelled claim. Test methods Appropriate study protocol including the required number of subjects and sampling intervals should be determined according to preliminary studies and previously reported data. If bioequivalence cannot be demonstrated because of an insufficient number, an add-on subject study can be performed using not less than half the number of subjects in the initial study. The add-on subject study should include at least one half of the number of subjects in the initial study. If the number of subjects in the initial study is 20 or more (10 subjects per group) or the total number of subjects in the initial study and add-on study is 30 or more, bioequivalence may be assessed based on the difference between the average bioavailability of the test product and that of the reference product and the results of dissolution testing, without depending on confidence intervals, as is explained below. Multiple dose studies or studies with stable isotopes may be useful for highly variable drugs that require large sample sizes. If the use of the drug is limited to a specific population and test and reference products a show a significant difference in dissolution* under one or more of conditions of the dissolution test (Sec. V), the bioequivalent studies should be performed using subjects from the specific population. If the use of the drug is not limited to a specific population and test and reference b products showed a specific significant difference in dissolution* at around pH 6. When it is unfavorable to use healthy subjects because of potent pharmacological action or adverse (side) effects, patients receiving the medication should be employed.