The use of dural anesthesia can facilitate the induced hypoten- temporary ureteral stents and maintenance of high sion buy zoloft 100mg on-line depression test for child, decrease general anesthetic requirements effective 100 mg zoloft depression symptoms handout, and urinary fow help alleviate this problem in the early provide highly efective postoperative analgesia cheap zoloft 100mg without prescription depression kinds. Close monitoring of blood pressure, intravas- cular volume, and blood loss is always appropriate. Urinary output should be monitored Preoperative Considerations and correlated with the progress of the operation, Testicular tumors are classifed as either semino- as the urinary path is interrupted at an early point mas or nonseminomas. Sub- operative procedures, the risk of hypothermia sequent management depends on tumor histology. Urinary Diversion in the staging and management of patients with Urinary diversion is usually performed immedi- nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Anesthetic very radiosensitive tumors that are primarily treated management should include use of the lowest with retroperitoneal radiotherapy. Chemotherapy inspired concentration of oxygen compatible with is used for patients who relapse afer radiation. Positive end-expira- Patients with large bulky seminomas or those with tory pressure (5–10 cm H2O) may be helpful in opti- increased α-fetoprotein levels (usually associated mizing oxygenation. Retraction of the inferior vena efects of preoperative chemotherapy and radiation cava during surgery ofen results in transient arterial therapy. Because ligation of intercostal arter- Intraoperative Considerations ies during lef-sided dissections has rarely resulted A. Radical Orchiectomy in paraplegia, it may be prudent to document nor- mal motor function postoperatively prior to insti- Inguinal orchiectomy can be carried out with tution of epidural analgesia. Anesthetic manage- magna (artery of Adamkiewicz), which is supplied ment may be complicated by refex bradycardia by these vessels and is responsible for most of the from traction on the spermatic cord. A modifed technique that may help preserve fertility limits the dissection below the inferior mesenteric artery to include lym- 4. Renal Cancer phatic tissue only on the ipsilateral side of the tes- ticular tumor. Preoperative Considerations Patients receiving bleomycin preoperatively Renal cell carcinoma is frequently associated with 9 may be particularly at risk for oxygen toxicity paraneoplastic syndromes, such as erythrocytosis, and fuid overload, and for developing pulmonary hypercalcemia, hypertension, and nonmetastatic insufciency or acute respiratory distress syn- hepatic dysfunction. Central venous cannulation cancer has a peak incidence between the ffh and is used for pressure monitoring and rapid transfu- sixth decades of life, with 2:1 male to female ratio. Transesophageal echocardiography should be Curative surgical treatment is undertaken for car- strongly considered for all patients with extensive cinomas confned to the kidney, but palliative sur- vena cava thrombus. Retraction of the inferior vena gical treatment may involve more extensive tumor cava may be associated with transient arterial hypo- debulking. Only brief periods of controlled hypoten- the tumor extends into the renal vein and inferior sion should be used to reduce blood loss because of vena cava as a thrombus. Refex renal vasoconstriction in the unaf- rial embolization may shrink the tumor mass and fected kidney can also result in postoperative renal reduce operative blood loss. Fluid replacement should be sufcient Preoperative evaluation of the patient with to maintain urinary output greater than 0. Preexisting renal from epidural local anesthetic administration will impairment depends upon tumor size in the afected potentiate the hypotensive efect of hemorrhage. Smoking is a well- of hypothermia should be minimized by utilizing established risk factor for renal carcinoma, and these a forced-air warming blanket and intravenous fuid patients have a high incidence of underlying coro- warming. The postoperative course of open nephrec- nary artery and chronic obstructive lung disease. Excision of Tumor Thrombus Some medical centers routinely perform compli- cated resections of renal cancers with tumor throm- Intraoperative Considerations bus extending into the inferior vena cava. Radical Nephrectomy of the degree of physiological trespass and potential The operation may be carried out via an anterior for major blood loss associated with this operation, subcostal, fank, or midline incision. Hand-assisted the anesthetic management (as for nephrectomy) laparoscopic technique is ofen utilized for par- can be challenging. A thoracoabdominal approach tial or total nephrectomy associated with a smaller allows the use of cardiopulmonary bypass when tumor mass. A due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy, preoperative ventilation-perfusion scan may detect has greatly improved the quality of life for patients preexisting pulmonary embolization of the throm- with end-stage renal disease. In addition, to the diaphragm, above the diaphragm, into the restrictions on candidates for renal transplantation right atrium, or to the tricuspid valve. Infection and cancer are be used to confrm the absence of tumor in the vena the only remaining absolute contraindications. Invasive Current organ preservation techniques allow ample pressure monitoring and multiple large-bore intra- time (24–48 h) for preoperative dialysis of cadaveric venous catheters are necessary because transfusion recipients. Living-related transplants are performed requirements are commonly 10–15 units of packed electively with simultaneous donor and recipient red blood cells. The recipient’s serum potassium 10 plasma, and cryoprecipitate may also be required. Central venous catheterization should be performed cau- Intraoperative Considerations tiously to prevent dislodgement and embolization Renal transplantation is carried out by placing the of tumor thrombus. A high central venous pressure donor kidney retroperitoneally in the iliac fossa and is typical in the setting of signifcant caval throm- anastomosing the renal vessels to the iliac vessels bus and refects the degree of venous obstruction. Heparin is adminis- Pulmonary artery catheters provide little informa- tered prior to temporary clamping of the iliac vessels. Immunosuppression is initiated on the day Complete obstruction of the inferior vena cava of surgery with combination medications which markedly increases operative blood loss because of may include corticosteroids, cyclosporine or tacro- dilated venous collaterals from the lower body that limus, azathioprine or mycophenolate mofetil, anti- traverse the abdominal wall, retroperitoneum, and thymocyte globulin, monoclonal antibodies directed epidural space. The anesthetist should discuss in tion may be heralded by sudden supraventricular advance with the surgery team the timing and dos- arrhythmias, arterial desaturation, and profound age of any immunosuppressive agents which will systemic hypotension. Cardiopulmonary bypass may be used tomy (with a failed transplant) is performed for when the tumor occupies more than 40% of the intractable hypertension or chronic infection. Heparinization and hypothermia Most renal transplants are performed with general greatly increase surgical blood loss. All general anesthetic agents have is extubated but still unresponsive, and vital been employed without any apparent detrimen- signs are stable. He begins to rocuronium may be the muscle relaxants of choice, shiver intensely, his blood pressure decreases as they are not dependent upon renal excretion for to 80/35 mm Hg, and his respirations increase elimination. Monitoring Central venous cannulation may be useful for What is the diﬀerential diagnosis? If the graf ischemic time was prolonged, ered, particularly when the patient fails to respond an oliguric phase may precede the diuretic phase, to appropriate measures (see below). Administration of furosemide or addi- Based on the history, what is the most likely tional mannitol may be indicated in such cases. Hyperkalemia has been reported afer release of A diagnosis cannot be made with reasonable the vascular clamp following completion of the certainty at this point, and the patient requires fur- arterial anastomosis, particularly in pediatric and ther evaluation. Nonetheless, the hypotension and other small patients, and release of potassium con- shivering must be treated rapidly because of the tained in the preservative solution has been impli- history of coronary artery disease. Donor sion seriously compromises coronary perfusion, kidney washout of the preservative solution with and the shivering markedly increases myocardial ice-cold lactated Ringer’s solution just prior to the oxygen demand (see Chapter 21).
Unconsciousness or decreased levels of con- tated with succinylcholine for paralysis cheap zoloft 100mg otc mood disorder case study. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglo- line administration is likely to produce poten- bin with an afnity approximately 250 times that of tially lethal elevation of serum potassium levels purchase 50 mg zoloft visa anxiety mayo clinic. Multimodal approaches are 2 2 the lef; both of these processes result in impaired ofen advantageous purchase 100mg zoloft visa mood disorder herbal remedy. Regional analgesia may provide availability of oxygen molecules at the local tissue beneft, although in the early postburn period this level. Pulse oximetry provides a falsely elevated technique may mask the symptoms of compartment indication of oxygen saturation in the setting of syndrome or other clinical signs and symptoms. The resuscitation transfusion protocols are associated with a reduction environment must be maintained near body tem- in organ failure and postinjury complications. Curr Opin voice, dyspnea, tachypnea, or altered level of con- Anesthesiol 2010;23:263. This page intentionally left blank C T R Maternal & Fetal Physiology & Anesthesia Michael A. It concludes with a description of the physi- 1 progressively decreases during pregnancy— ological transition from fetal to neonatal life. Progesterone, which is sedating when given Pregnancy afects most organ systems (Table 40–1 ). Other levels during labor and delivery also likely plays changes lack obvious benefts but nonetheless require a major role. The latter has three major efects: Blood volume +35% (1) decreased spinal cerebrospinal fuid volume, Plasma volume +55% Cardiac output +40% (2) decreased potential volume of the epidural Stroke volume +30% space, and (3) increased epidural (space) pressure. Heart rate +20% The frst two efects enhance the cephalad spread of Systolic blood pressure −5% local anesthetic solutions during spinal and epi- Diastolic blood pressure −15% Peripheral resistance −15% dural anesthesia, respectively, whereas the last may Pulmonary resistance −30% complicate identifcation of the epidural space (see Chapter 45). Positive (rather than Hemoglobin −20% Platelets −10% the usual negative) epidural pressures have been Clotting factors2 +30 to 250% recorded in parturients. Oxygen consumption and minute ventilation pro- Capillary engorgement of the respiratory mucosa gressively increase during pregnancy. Tidal volume during pregnancy predisposes the upper airways to and, to a lesser extent, respiratory rate and inspi- trauma, bleeding, and obstruction. Paco2 decreases to 28–32 mm Hg; signifcant respiratory alkalosis is prevented by a compensatory decrease in plasma bicarbonate Cardiovascular Eﬀects concentration. Hyperventilation may also increase Cardiac output and blood volume increase to meet Pa o 2 slightly. Elevated levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyc- accelerated maternal and fetal metabolic demands. The P50 increase in red cell mass (45%) produces dilutional for hemoglobin increases from 27 to 30 mm Hg; the anemia and reduces blood viscosity. Hemoglobin combination of the latter with an increase in cardiac concentration, however, usually remains greater output (see section on Cardiovascular Efects below) than 11 g/dL. In the third trimester, elevation rightward shif of the hemoglobin dissociation curve of the diaphragm is compensated by an increase in (see the section on Respiratory Efects). A decrease the anteroposterior diameter of the chest; diaphrag- in systemic vascular resistance by the second trimes- matic motion, however, is not restricted. Toracic ter decreases both diastolic and, to a lesser degree, breathing is favored over abdominal breathing. The response to adrenergic vital capacity and closing capacity are minimally agents and vasoconstrictors is blunted. Tis decrease is principally easily tolerate the blood loss associated with deliv- due to a reduction in expiratory reserve volume as ery; total blood volume reaches 90 mL/kg. Flow– blood loss during vaginal delivery is 400–500 mL, volume loops are unafected, and airway resistance compared with 800–1000 mL for a cesarean sec- decreases. Blood volume does not return to normal until intrapulmonary shunting increases toward term. Pulmonary artery, central venous, increased oxygen consumption promotes rapid and pulmonary artery wedge pressures remain oxygen desaturation during periods of apnea. Most of these efects are observed in Preoxygenation (denitrogenation) prior to induc- the frst and, to a lesser extent, the second trimes- tion of general anesthesia is therefore mandatory ter. In the third trimester, cardiac output does not to avoid hypoxemia in pregnant patients. Under these condi- immediately afer delivery (see the section on Efect tions, atelectasis and hypoxemia readily occur. Such for glucose and amino acids is common and ofen decreases have been shown to be secondary to results in mild glycosuria (1–10 g/d) or proteinuria impeded venous return to the heart as the enlarging (<300 mg/d), or both. Approximately 5% of women at term develop Gastroesophageal refux and esophagitis are 4 the supine hypotension syndrome (aortocaval common during pregnancy. Gastric motility is compression), which is characterized by hypoten- reduced, and upward and anterior displacement of sion associated with pallor, sweating, or nausea and the stomach by the uterus promotes incompetence vomiting. Tese fac- 5 complete or near-complete occlusion of the inferior tors place the parturienThat high risk for regur- vena cava by the gravid uterus. However, neither with the hypotensive efects of regional or general gastric acidity nor gastric volume changes signif- anesthesia, aortocaval compression can readily pro- cantly during pregnancy. Turning the patient on her side gics reduce lower esophageal sphincter pressure, typically restores venous return from the lower body may facilitate gastroesophageal refux, and delay and corrects the hypotension in such instances. The gravid uterus Hepatic Eﬀects also compresses the aorta in most parturients when Overall hepatic function and blood fow are they are supine. Tis latter efect decreases blood unchanged; minor elevations in serum trans- fow to the lower extremities and, more importantly, aminases and lactic dehydrogenase levels may be to the uteroplacental circulation. Mild elevations in tion reduces caval compression but exacerbates aor- serum alkaline phosphatase are due to its secretion tic compression. A mild decrease in serum albu- Chronic partial caval obstruction in the third min is due to an expanded plasma volume, and as a trimester predisposes to venous stasis, phlebitis, and result, colloid oncotic pressure is reduced. Moreover, compres- decrease in serum pseudocholinesterase activity is sion of the inferior vena cava below the diaphragm also presenThat term but rarely produces signifcant distends and increases blood fow through the para- prolongation of succinylcholine’s action. The break- vertebral venous plexus (including the epidural down of ester-type local anesthetics is not apprecia- veins), and to a minor degree, the abdominal wall. Pseudocholinesterase activity may not Lastly, elevation of the diaphragm shifs the return to normal until up to 6 weeks postpartum. A few patients Hematological Eﬀects develop small, asymptomatic pericardial efusion. Pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may be benefcial in limiting blood loss at Renal & Gastrointestinal Eﬀects delivery. Accelerated fbrinolysis can be result serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen observed late in the third trimester. Because of fetal utilization, iron and folate defciency anemias readily develop if Uterine Blood Flow supplements of these nutrients are not taken. At term, uterine blood fow represents about 10% of the cardiac output, or 600–700 mL/min (compared Metabolic Eﬀects with 50 mL/min in the nonpregnant uterus). Eighty Complex metabolic and hormonal changes occur percent of uterine blood fow normally supplies the during pregnancy. Tese changes resemble starvation, because ture, so that autoregulation is absent, but the uterine blood glucose and amino acid levels are low whereas vasculature remains sensitive to α-adrenergic ago- free fatty acids, ketones, and triglyceride levels are nists.
An epidural block can be per- In North America zoloft 100mg on-line anxiety kit, hyperbaric spinal anesthesia formed at the lumbar generic zoloft 100mg mood disorder lithium, thoracic best 50mg zoloft depression symptoms quiz, or cervical level. The level of anesthesia is then dependent block and is described at the end of this chap- 12 on the patient’s position during and immediately fol- ter. In the sitting position, “saddle surgical anesthesia, obstetric analgesia, postopera- block” can be achieved by keeping the patient sit- tive pain control, and chronic pain management. Toracic epidural blocks can be controlled by the choice of drug, concentration, dos- accomplished with either a midline or paramedian age, and level of injection. Rarely used for primary anesthesia, the The epidural space surrounds the dura mater thoracic epidural technique is most commonly used posteriorly, laterally, and anteriorly. Single travel in this space as they exit laterally through the shot or catheter techniques are used for the manage- foramen and course outward to become peripheral ment of chronic pain. Other contents of the lumbar epidural space eter are useful for providing prolonged durations of include fatty connective tissue, lymphatics, and a analgesia and may obviate or shorten postoperative rich venous (Batson’s) plexus. Fluoroscopic studies ventilation in patients with underlying lung disease have suggested the presence of septa or connective and following chest surgery. Clinically, they are used primarily for 13 min) and may not be as dense as spinal anes- the management of pain. Tis can be manifested as a more pronounced diferential block or a segmental block, a feature that Epidural Needles can be useful clinically. For example, by using rela- The standard epidural needle is typically 17–18 gauge, tively dilute concentrations of a local anesthetic 3 or 3. A segmental block is characterized curved tip (Crawford needles) may have a greater by a well-defned band of anesthesia at certain nerve incidence of dural puncture, but facilitate passage of roots; leaving nerve roots above and below an epidural catheter. Tis can be seen with a thoracic epidural winged tips and introducer devices set into the hub that provides upper abdominal anesthesia while designed for guiding catheter placement. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia is most Epidural Catheters ofen performed in the lumbar region. The mid- Placing a catheter into the epidural space allows line (Figure 45–4) or paramedian approach for continuous infusion or intermittent bolus tech- (Figure 45–14) can be used. In addition to extending the duration of the thesia can be used for any procedure below the block, it may allow a lower total dose of anesthetic diaphragm. When T oracic epidural blocks are technically more using a curved tipped needle, the bevel opening is difcult to accomplish than are lumbar blocks because directed either cephalad or caudad, and the cath- of greater angulation and the overlapping of the spi- eter is advanced 2–6 cm into the epidural space. Note that an acute angulation (30–50°) epidural needle is required for a thoracic epidural block, whereas 3 only a slight cephalad orientation is usually 4 5 required for cervical and lumbar epidural blocks. Coccygeal either exiting the epidural space via an intervertebral Speciﬁc Techniques foramen or coursing into the anterolateral recesses for Epidural Anesthesia of the epidural space. Afer advancing the catheter Using the midline or paramedian approaches the desired depth, the needle is removed, leaving detailed previously, the epidural needle is passed the catheter in place. Two remain in place for prolonged times (eg, >1 wk) may techniques make it possible to determine when the be tunneled under the skin. Catheters have either a tip of the needle has entered the potential (epidural) single porThat the distal end or multiple side ports space: the “loss of resistance” and “hanging drop” close to a closed tip. Spiral wire-reinforced catheters are very The loss of resistance technique is preferred by resistant to kinking. The needle is advanced through the ciated with fewer, less intense paresthesias and may subcutaneous tissues with the stylet in place until be associated with a lower incidence of inadvertent the interspinous ligament is entered, as noted by an intravascular insertion. Successful “epiduralists” will generally have sensed the “give” in their hands as the epidural needle tip passes through Crawford needle (thin walled) the ligamentum favum. Activating an Epidural The quantity (volume and concentration) of 14 Weiss winged needle local anesthetic needed for epidural anesthe- sia is larger than that needed for spinal anesthesia. Toxic side efects are likely if a “full epidural dose” is injected intrathecally or intravascularly. Safeguards against toxic epidural side efects include test and incremental dosing. Tese safeguards apply whether the injection is through the needle or an epidural catheter. The classic test dose combines local anesthetic and epinephrine, typically 3 mL of 1. The 45 mg of lidocaine, if is removed, and a glass syringe flled with approxi- injected intrathecally, will produce spinal anesthesia mately 2 mL of saline or air is attached to the hub that should be rapidly apparent. If the tip of the needle is within the suggested the use of lower doses of local anesthetic, ligament, gentle attempts at injection are met with as an unintended injection of 45 mg of intrathecal resistance, and injection is not possible. The needle lidocaine can be difcult to manage in areas such is then slowly advanced, millimeter by millimeter, as labor rooms. The 15 mcg dose of epinephrine, if with either continuous or rapidly repeating attempts injected intravascularly, should produce a noticeable at injection. As the tip of the needle just enters the increase in heart rate (20% or more), with or with- epidural space, there is a sudden loss of resistance, out hypertension. False Once the interspinous ligament has been positives (a uterine contraction causing pain or an entered and the stylet has been removed, the hang- increase in heart rate coincident to test dosing) and ing drop technique requires that the hub of the false negatives (bradycardia and exaggerated hyper- needle be flled with solution so that a drop hangs tension in response to epinephrine in patients tak- from its outside opening. As long as the tip of the needle injection is insufcient to avoid inadvertent intrave- remains within the ligamentous structures, the drop nous injection; most experienced practitioners have remains “hanging. Incremental dosing is a very efective method of If the needle becomes plugged, the drop will not be avoiding serious complications. If aspiration is nega- drawn into the hub of the needle, and inadvertent tive, a fraction of the total intended local anesthetic dural puncture may occur. Tis dose should be to use this technique for the paramedian approach large enough for mild symptoms of intravascular and cervical epidurals. Successful “epiduralists” rely injection to occur, but small enough to avoid seizure on either the loss of resistance or hanging drop as or cardiovascular compromise. If the initial labor epidural bolus opioids, tend to have a greater efect on the quality was delivered through the needle, and the catheter of epidural anesthesia than on the duration of the was then inserted, it may be erroneously assumed block. Epinephrine in concentrations of 5 mcg/mL that the catheter is well positioned because the prolongs the efect of epidural lidocaine, mepiva- patient is still comfortable from the initial bolus. Catheters can absorption and reduces peak systemic blood levels migrate intrathecally or intravascularly from an of all epidurally administered local anesthetics. Some cases of “catheter migration” may Epidural Anesthetic Agents represent delayed recognition of an improperly The epidural agent is chosen based on the desired positioned catheter. The anticipated duration of uses incremental dosing, major systemic toxic side the procedure may call for a short- or long-acting efects and/or total spinal anesthesia from accidental single shot anesthetic or the insertion of a catheter intrathecal injections will be rare. Only preservative-free local anes- Factors Aﬀecting Level of Block thetic solutions or those specifcally labeled for epi- Factors afecting the level of epidural anesthesia dural or caudal use are employed. Following the initial 1–2 mL per segment In adults, 1–2 mL of local anesthetic per segment bolus (in fractionated doses), repeat doses deliv- to be blocked is a generally accepted guideline. For ered through an epidural catheter are either done example, to achieve a T4 sensory level from an L4– on a fxed time interval, based on the practitioner’s L5 injection would require about 12–24 mL. For experience with the agent, or when the block dem- segmental or analgesic blocks, less volume is needed. Once some The dose required to achieve the same level of regression in sensory level has occurred, one-third anesthesia decreases with age.
The diag- nosis is not usually made clinically and the nature of the lesion is established histopathologically after surgical removal buy zoloft line neonatal depression definition. Pathology Glomus tumor is characterized by varying proportions of glo- mus cells buy zoloft with amex anxiety tremors, convoluted venous channels buy zoloft 100 mg online mood disorder genetic, and smooth muscle. It can resemble cavernous hemangioma, but the vascular chan- nels are surrounded by a narrow rim of one to three layers of glomus cells (3,7). It has been subclassiﬁed into solid glomus tumor, glomangioma, and glomangiomyoma depending on the histopathologic components. There are sheets of uniform cells with pale or eosinophilic cytoplasm, well-deﬁned cell margins, and round or ovoid nuclei. Rarely, a glomus tumor can have atypical features suggesting malignancy (glomangiosarcoma). Multiple glo- mus tumors must be differentiated from the hemangiomas associated with the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome. The presence of typical glomus cells in all glomus tumors helps to make that differentiation. The glomus cells stain for antibodies against muscle speciﬁc actin and vimentin, suggesting that the glomus cell is probably of mesenchymal origin and may represent a specialized vascular smooth mus- cle cell (3). Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The multiple lesions generally began in the lower extremities Arch Ophthalmol 1989;107:858–862. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1994;30: to occur most often in younger, immunosuppressed adults and 1207–1211. Radiotherapy in the management of epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma: a retrospective study of 643 cases. Radiother lymphoma and opportunistic infections, it is also being recog- Oncol 1998;46:19–22. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva sion, particularly after renal transplantation (6). Occasionally, however, it may develop only on the eyelids, before other cutaneous involvement (2,8). Clinical Features Eyelid Kaposi’s sarcoma appears as a red, purple, brown, or blue ﬂat subcutaneous lesion. The clinical differential diag- nosis includes pyogenic granuloma, cavernous hemangioma, amelanotic melanoma, lymphoma, metastatic carcinoma, and chalazion. Pathology Histopathologically, Kaposi’s sarcoma appears as a network of proliferating endothelial cells that form slitlike, blood-ﬁlled spaces. Low-dose radiotherapy (15–20 Gy) in fractionated doses is very effective in control of lesions conﬁned to the eye- lids or conjunctiva (10,11). Acquired immunodeﬁciency syndrome: ophthalmologic and dermatologic manifestations. No treatment was given because patient was hospi- larger, pedunculated lesion arising near upper eyelid margin. Same facial view after 2400 cGy of radiotherapy, showing lid and left upper eyelid. Excisional surgery of periocular coma can be solitary, but 50% of lesions are multifocal. The diffuse variant can sometimes develop from coalescence of multiple smaller lesions. Cuta- neous angiosarcoma most often arises spontaneously, but it can develop from a prior benign vascular tumor, including nevus ﬂammeus and an irradiated lymphangioma (5). Pathology Microscopically, angiosarcoma is characterized by irregular anastomosing vascular channels lined by atypical endothelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei (1–3). Some tumors are very poorly differentiated and special stains and immunohisto- chemistry may help to elucidate the vascular nature of the lesion. There is some debate as to whether this neoplasm orig- inates from vascular endothelial cells or lymphatic endothelial cells (2). Management The management of cutaneous angiosarcoma involving the eyelids is particularly difficult. Localized lesions may be excised, but more extensive ones may be unresectable and may require radical surgery and radiotherapy, which is gener- ally not effective in achieving tumor control. The mortality rate is approximately 40%, with regional local recurrence and distant metastasis, often to lung and liver (1–6). Gross appearance of resected specimen from patient seen half of face in a 60-year-old man. The eyelids, as well as most other ocular structures, can be involved with benign and malignant lymphoid tumors (1–15). Management The classiﬁcation of extranodal lymphoid tumors in the ocular region is complex and confusing. The Revised European When either B-cell or T-cell lymphoma are suspected in the American Lymphoma classiﬁcation is currently the most pop- eyelid, the affected patient should usually undergo a biopsy of ular (4,5,11). Ophthalmic pathologists have traditionally clas- the lesion and study of the cells with immunohistochemistry siﬁed lymphoid tumors into benign (lymphoid hyperplasia), and ﬂow cytometry to accurately categorize the lesion. Clinical differentiation of important that the clinician communicate with the pathologist these forms is not usually possible, and biopsy and histopatho- ahead of time to ensure that the tissue is handled properly. If sys- Hodgkin’s types and B-cell or T-cell types (cutaneous lym- temic evaluation reveals more widespread lymphoma, then phoma; mycosis fungoides) depending on the type of lympho- chemotherapy is generally given to control the systemic dis- cyte that comprises most of the lesion. If the Sezary syndrome is a variant of T-cell lymphoma that disease seems to be conﬁned to the eyelid area, then radio- consists of a triad of erythroderma, leukemia, and large therapy can be considered. It generally affects elderly men and is from 2000 cGy for benign lymphoma to 4000 cGy for malig- characterized by a more fulminating course. The prognosis varies widely with the atypical mononuclear cells in the blood (Sezary cells). Eyelid lymphoid tumors tend to parallel those of the orbit in their degree of malignancy and their clinical behavior. Orbital lymphoid tumors are more common and are discussed in more detail in the Atlas of Orbital Tumors. Lymphoma can be conﬁned to the eyelid, but is more often associated with systemic lymphoma. In contrast with conjunctival lymphoma, eye- lid lymphoma tends to have a greater association with sys- temic lymphoma, particularly if it is bilateral (1,7). Clinical Features B-cell lymphoma of the eyelid generally occurs as a smooth, rather ﬁrm subcutaneous mass. Although it may be conﬁned to the eyelid, it is more often continuous with anterior orbital disease. In contrast, the less common T-cell lymphoma has a ten- dency to affect the skin more superficially and to exhibit papules, plaques, or ulceration (mycosis fungoides).
Acute back pain due the past decade in association with a two- to three- to a herniated disc can be initially managed with fold increase in back surgeries buy zoloft canada anxiety lexapro, although this has modifcation of activity and with medications such not correlated with improved patient outcome purchase genuine zoloft online depression symptoms on dogs. A short course of American Pain Society’s clinical practice guidelines opioids may be considered for patients with severe for low back pain do not recommend routine imag- pain buy 50 mg zoloft visa anxiety 4 hereford bull. Afer the acute symptoms subside, the patient ing or other diagnostic tests for patients with nonspe- can be referred to a physical therapist for instruc- cifc low back pain. In addition, the patient’s awareness of stop smoking, not only for the obvious health ben- his or her imaging abnormalities may infuence self- efts but also because nicotine further compromises perception of health and functional ability. Percutaneous disc decompression involving acquired when severe or progressive neurological extraction of a small amount of nucleus pulposus defcits are present, or when serious underlying con- may help to decompress the nerve root. When symptoms persist beyond 3 months, the A centrally herniated disc will usually cause pain at pain may be considered chronic and may require the lower level, and a laterally protruded disc will a multidisciplinary approach. Of note, back supports should be discour- confrmed if pain relief is obtained following intraar- aged because they may weaken paraspinal muscles. Degen- medial branch nerve blocks are more efective than eration of the nucleus pulposus reduces disc height facet joint injections. Medial branch rhizotomy may and leads to osteophyte formation (spondylosis) at provide long-term analgesia for patients with facet the endplates of adjoining vertebral bodies. Neural compression may Although most spine-related pain due to disc dis- cause radiculopathy that mimics a herniated disc. The extremities, patients may have cervical pain attrib- 13 back pain usually radiates into the buttocks, uted to these processes. It is characteristically worse with is that the cervical nerve roots, unlike those in the exercise and relieved by rest, particularly sitting with thoracic and lumbar spine, exit the foramina above the spine fexed (the “shopping cart sign”). Tis pseudoclaudication and neurogenic claudication are occurs until the level of C7, where the extra cervi- used to describe such pain that develops with pro- cal nerve roots, C8, exit below the pedicles of C7, longed standing or ambulation. The clinical examination may nerve conduction studies may be useful in evaluat- help to identify the nerve root that is afected with ing neurological compromise. Risks Patients with mild to moderate stenosis and inherent with percutaneous cervical procedures radicular symptoms may obtain beneft from epi- include accidental intravascular injection of local dural steroid injections via a transforaminal, inter- anesthetic or steroid. Tis may help these in the neck have been associated with devastating individuals tolerate physical therapy. Tose with outcomes such as spinal cord injury and death and moderate to severe stenosis may be amenable to should be avoided. Severe multilevel symptoms may quency ablation of the medial branches innervating warrant surgical decompression. Congenital Abnormalities Degenerative changes in the facet (zygapophyseal) Congenital abnormalities of the back are ofen joints may also produce back pain. Urgent surgical intervention is indicated when include sacralization of L5 (the vertebral body is the patient also sufers from acute weakness. It typically presents as low back pain associated luxation of one vertebral body on another resulting with early morning stifness in a young patient, usu- in one body in front of the next). Afer a few months to essary in patients with progressive symptoms and years, the pain gradually intensifes and is associated spinal instability. Diagnosis may be difcult early in the disease, but radiographic evidence of sacroiliitis is usually pres- 8. As the disease progresses, the spine develops a Benign primary tumors of the spine include hem- characteristic “bamboo-like” radiographic appear- angiomas, osteomas, aneurysmal bone cysts, and ance. Malignant spine tumors and shoulders, as well as extraarticular infamma- include osteosarcomas, Ewing’s sarcoma, and giant tory manifestations. In addition, breast, lung, prostate, renal, at functional preservation of posture. Pain is usually constant tumor necrosis factor-α agents have been shown to and may be associated with localized tenderness decrease the progression of ankylosing spondylitis over involved vertebrae. Intradural tumors such as meningiomas, ercept (Enbrel), adalimumab (Humira), and golim- schwannomas, ependymomas, and gliomas can umab (Simponi). Although this treatment approach present with a radiculopathy and may rapidly prog- shows promise, patients may be at an increased risk ress to faccid paralysis. Treatment options arthritis, or infammatory bowel disease may also usually involve surgical decompression, chemo- present with low back pain, but extraspinal mani- therapy, radiation therapy, and palliative symptom festations are usually more prominent. Neuropathic pain includes pain associated with Patients may present with chronic back pain with- diabetic neuropathy, causalgia, phantom limbs, out fever or leukocytosis (eg, spinal tuberculosis). Cancer pain and chronic low abscess present with acute pain, fever, leukocytosis, back pain may have prominent neuropathic compo- elevated sedimentation rate, and elevated C-reactive nents. Mechanisms of Orthostatic hypotension and other forms of auto- neuropathic pain are reviewed earlier in this chapter. Because neuropathic pain is ofen difcult to Treatment of diabetic neuropathy is symp- treat, multiple therapeutic modalities may be nec- tomatic and directed at optimal glycemic control essary. Adjuvant drugs play α2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine), topical agents a major role. Spi- a neuropathic pain disorder with signifcant nal opioids may be very efective for some patients. Signs, symptoms, patho- Diabetic Neuropathy physiology, and response to treatment are quite Diabetic neuropathy is the most common type similar. Previously, this condition was thought to 14 of neuropathic pain encountered in practice represent sympathetically maintained pain, but and is a major cause of morbidity. Its pathophysi- there is recent evidence that in some cases the pain ology is poorly understood but may be related to may be sympathetically independent. It afects individuals from Diabetic neuropathy may be symmetric (general- childhood to late adulthood and may occur more ized), focal, or multifocal, afecting peripheral (sen- commonly in females. The autonomic ner- polyneuropathy, which results in symmetric numb- vous system may be involved, exemplifed by alter- ness (“stocking-and-glove” distribution), pares- ations in sweating (sudomotor changes), color, thesias, dysesthesias, and pain. The pain varies in and skin temperature, and by trophic changes in intensity, may be severe, and is ofen worsThat night. Decreases in strength and Loss of proprioception may lead to gait distur- range of motion in the afected extremity may be bances, and sensory defcits can lead to traumatic present. Isolated mononeuropathies afecting indi- although the most common initiating events are vidual nerves may lead to wrist or foot drop or to surgery, fractures, crush injuries, and sprains. Autonomic neuropathy typically afects nervous system and the central nervous system. Causal- risk of orthostatic hypotension with these agents, gia (which means burning pain), frst identifed in and dosage should be increased gradually. Anticon- injured veterans of the American Civil War, typically vulsant and antidepressant medications may also be follows gunshot injuries or other major trauma to benefcial. The pain ofen has an immediate onset Surgical sympathectomy in patients with and is associated with allodynia, hyperpathia, and chronic symptoms is frequently disappointing, vasomotor and sudomotor dysfunction. It is exacer- resulting in only transient relief and in some cases bated by factors that increase sympathetic tone, such a new, alternate pain syndrome.
Displacement of cerebral vessels and en- to the lateral geniculate bodies and ofen within the third hancement of the abnormal vascular tumour net are seen on ventricle zoloft 25 mg low cost mood disorder lesson plan. T2-weighted images: on axial scans the optic nerve is thickened and deformed is mace shaped (e) Fig generic 100 mg zoloft with visa bipolar depression symptoms test free. The child presented imaging zoloft 25 mg otc anxiety rash symptoms, and is homogenously hypointensive on T1-weighted imag- with headaches, lefward exophthalmos, visual loss up to 0 lef and up ing; the orbital part of the tumour is clearly diferentiated; the large to 0. A part of the tumour flls the third ventricle, and the lateral ventricles series of Т2-weighted images in axial (а) and coronal (b) planes and are enlarged Fig. T1-weighted images (а,b): the solid part of the tumour is heterogeneously hypointensive, and the cystic part is hypointensive. Т2-weighted image (c): the solid part of the tumour is heterogeneously and predominantly hyperintensive, and the cystic part is hyperintensive Fig. Т2-weighted image (а): the signal dium by the tumour in the chiasmal region and mild accumulation of a tumour is heterogeneous along the optic tracts. If Germinomas are tumours of children and young adults vascular lesions are suspected, then cerebral angiography is (5–30 years). Such manifestation confrms that the tumour involves the walls of the lateral ventricles. Oculomotor signs may develop if Germinoma is one of the most frequent tumours of the pi- a tumour grows into the parasellar space. Calcifcations are not usual for from the suprasellar cistern, or they may be metastases from tumour here. Primary germinoma of the pineal region may be the pineal region germinomas (Takeuchi 1978). Tey are typically located along the median trative growth; they may embed metastases into the walls of axis in the bottom of the third ventricle. The walls of these cysts are lined with simple, multilayer, fat epithelium, which covers the external layer of connective tissue. In contrast to dermoid tumours, epider- Tese tumours of the sellar region are mainly seen in young moid tumours do not contain hair follicles and sebaceous children, predominantly in boys. It is suggested that the epidermoid tumour is not a tu- covered by a connective tissue capsule that contains ectoder- mour, but a benign cyst. Dermoid tumours are most frequent- mal elements (layers of exfoliated epithelium, sebaceous and ly diagnosed within the age range of 30–50. Tey are usually sweat glands, hair, crystals of cholesterol, amorphous fat), as located along the medial axis, frequently in the parasellar re- well as elements of neural, muscle, and bone tissue. Epider- gion, and less frequently in the posterior cranial fossa (Wilms moid tumours (dermoid tumours) are the result of division et al. A dermoid tumour is a lesion in the walls, which Sellar and Parasellar Tumours 581 Fig. Sagittal (а) and coronal (b) Т1- weighted images visualise a tumour with intrasuprasellar growth Fig. In 10–25% of them, calcifcations lineated from brain tissue, and have heterogeneous density are seen within (Tatler 1991). X-ray craniograms in coronal (а) and lateral projections (b): the sella turcica is enlarged, its bot- tom is depressed, and its entry is widened. Many bone density inclusions resembling teeth are in the cavity of sella and above it Fig. The tumour has heterogeneous structure: its posterior skull base (c) portions are represented by a cyst, and the anterior portions contain Sellar and Parasellar Tumours 583 Fig. Т1-weighted im- aging shows a small hyperintensive lesion (fat inclusion) in the depth of the tumour Fig. A large and widely extended mass lesion is seen hyperintensive on Т2-weighted images, and hypointensive on T1-weighted images, with a festoon-shaped contour. The volume of the tumour is better assessed with Т-weighted images (а) and Т1-weighted image (b). Tis is due to high fat content in the cyst (Horowitz row of the clivus leads to replacement of normal signal of 1990). Septi of fbrous connective tissue appear as hypointensive stripes on T2-weighted imag- 6. However, destruction of skull counting for less than 1% of all intracranial tumours. Chor- base bones and ossifcations in the depth of the tumour are domas are rare in children. Tey the interpeduncular cistern, adjoining the mamillary bodies consist of large cells with intracytoplasmic vacuoles and thick or tuber cinereum by a thin stalk. Hamartoma is not a proper strands of fbrous connective tissue, which give the mass le- tumour but a congenital, nontumour heterotopia. Other signs such as epileptic seizures and behavioural which is why partial resection with consequent radiation is changes occur later when a hamartoma acquires a diameter of performed. Sagittal (a) and coronal (b) T1-weighted images show a heterogeneously hyper- intensive tumour flling the sphenoidal sinus, cavities of the ethmoid labyrinth, and extending into the chiasmal and parasellar region 586 Chapter 6 Fig. The tumour destroys the sphenoid bone, flling the sphenoidal sinus and the ethmoid labyrinth. Small intracranial component of the tumour present compresses the brainstem Sellar and Parasellar Tumours 587 Fig. The tumour destroys the sphenoid bone, flling the sphenoidal sinus and the ethmoid labyrinth. Small intrac- ranial component of the tumour is present that compresses brainstem. T2-weighted imaging visualises the connective tissue septi in the tumour as well as T1-weighted imaging does 588 Chapter 6 Fig. Its sof tissue component is hyperintensive on Т2-weighted images, and is hypointen- sive on T1-weighted images. Calcifcations in the tumour stroma are dark in all sequences Sellar and Parasellar Tumours 589 Fig. Т1-weighted images (c,d) and Т2-weighted image (e) better identify the tumour expan- sion 590 Chapter 6 Fig. Its sof tissue component is hyperintensive on Т2-weighted imaging, and is hypointensive on T1-weighted imaging. A tumour with heterogeneous structure and enhancement is observed Sellar and Parasellar Tumours 591 Fig. It is typical for hamartomas that Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a group of disorders charac- their sizes and invasiveness do not increase on follow-up ex- terised by proliferation of histiocytes (macrophages). In cases of a single mass the hypothalamus, other cerebral malformations may be re- lesion, involvement of cranial vault bones is typical, and in vealed: agenesia/hypogenesia of the corpus callosum or corti- these cases, the hypothalamic–pituitary system is usually not cal disgenesia. Multifocal granulomatosis is a more aggressive dis- size that it causes deformity of the adjacent structures (Fig. The diferential diagnosis should be made from glioma triad of clinical manifestations is seen: diabetes insipidus, ex- of the bottom of the third ventricle. Sagittal (а), axial (b), and coronal (c) T1-weighted images: Premature sexual development (menses since the age of 2, hair in a small round lesion of the hypothalamus is seen isointensive with subaxillary fossae, pubic hair is present, and breast glands are en- brain tissue 592 Chapter 6 Fig.